This tool has been developed to present evidence of health inequalities in England. Measures of inequality are provided for key indicators being used by Public Health England to monitor progress on reducing inequalities within England. For some indicators, inequality measures are also provided within regions and upper tier local authorities. More local level measures will be added to the dashboard over time.
All indicators are drawn from the Public Health Outcomes Framework and are divided into the following domains:
This provides a summary table for all the indicators in the dashboard and the associated inequality measures. Data are displayed for a baseline period (date nearest to PHE inception) and a reporting period (the latest available data), with an indication of change between periods and direction of the trend.
This provides visualisations of the trends over time for indicators and the summary inequality measure where available. It also shows the trend for indicators by inequality group. The table shows the underlying data and confidence intervals at a 95% level.
When selecting an indicator on either the overview or data tab, the definitions tab will populate with the supporting information on the selected indicator.
The SII is a measure of the social gradient in an indicator - it represents the absolute difference across the social gradient from most to least deprived. It takes account of inequalities across the whole range of deprivation within an area and summarises this into a single number. Within the dashboard, the SII is based on the population divided into ten groups according to their level of deprivation (deprivation deciles).
The RII is a summary measure of inequality related to the Slope Index of Inequality. While the SII measures the absolute difference between the most and least deprived, the RII measures the relative difference. For example, the RII for the under 75 mortality rate from cancer in England is 2.2. This means that the rate for the most deprived is 2.2 times higher than the rate for the least deprived.
The SII assumes a linear relationship between the indicator and deprivation, but for three indicators (infant mortality, admissions for alcohol-related conditions, and under 75 mortality rate for cardiovascular disease) their relationship with deprivation is not linear. For this reason an SII measure is not currently presented within the tool. An RII value is presented for these indicators using an adapted form of this measure, calculated by first log transforming the deprivation decile values and then calculating the RII based on these. These figures can then be interpreted in the same way as the standard RII calculation.
The absolute gap measures the absolute difference between two groups. This may be between a specific population group and the national average, or between two independent population groups. The relative gap is the proportional difference between the two groups.
Where the dimension of inequality being considered contains a number of population groups which cannot be logically ordered, such as indicators by ethnic group, a summary measure called the mean difference has been presented. The measure shows the average of the absolute differences between each of the groups and a reference group. Values are treated as positive whether they are higher or lower than the reference group. The largest population is selected as the reference group for each indicator.
Further detail on these measures can be found in Appendix 2 of the PHOF Health Equity Report.
The Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) is a measure of relative deprivation for small areas. It is one element of the English Indices of Deprivation released by the Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government.
We are happy to answer any questions you may have, and invite your feedback on the tool to help inform future development.
Please contact the Population Health Analysis team by email at: firstname.lastname@example.org